Bushism-Effect of Number 10

Bushism

Wake Up Call! - TERROR UNINTERRUPTED

Guys we need to wake up... It's is high time that something is done about the terrorist activities .
Thing about the 9-11 in US , they took action and no one dared to do it again... Why cannot we do something to PREVENT the incidents .

The Mumbai Terror attack is a sad revelation of the same. Attacking the Hotels and killing the innocents High profiles and foreigners (our Guests).

This is an operation where all forces like Army, Navy , Air force , NSG ,MARINE Guards, RAF and other teams should do a combined operation. Not to forget the state Police team as they can penetrate the general people.

It is time to act now! Enough is enough!

Please come up with your comments and suggestions as what needs to be done!






Banks Condition!



God Save the Man...

US Election Results...

Packed Train

If Delhi trains are said to be packed like sardines, then how will you describe this train journey in Pakistan? Though this ordeal appears not to be an everyday affair, the picture is an eye-opener in many ways, seeking questions on security and law and order in Pakistan.

Image: Pilgrims cling on to a departing train after attending an annual religious congregation in Multan on November 2. The annual three-day Dawat-e-Islami congregation concluded with collective noon prayers.

Photograph: Mohammed Malik

Recession is coming

Recession is coming... make your own judgment, don't panic! Do what is wise.
The recession looks very eminent. It is really time to take pro active steps to avoid a painful time in the next two years which is how long the is expected to last.
Suggestions:
1. Don't take any loans; buy homes, properties with loans, or even cash. Keep as much cash as possible.
2. Pay off as much of personal loans, private loans, as debt collection will be hastened.
3. Sell any stocks you can even at lower prices.
4. Take money off from Trust Funds.
5. Don't believe in huge sales forecast from customers, be extremely prudent, lowest inventories, reduce liabilities.
6. Don't invest in new capital.
7. If you are selling homes/ properties/ cars, do it now, when you can get good prices, they are going to fall.
8. Don't invest in new business proposals.
9. Cancel holiday plans using credit cards.
10. Don't change jobs, as companies will retrench based on 'last in first out'.
Stay cool, wait, and if you took all of the above actions and more, you probably will be better off then many.
This is not a rumor.
Bear Stearns is the first of many banking and financial institutions that will start falling in the not too future. If Bear Stearns can fall, so can JP Morgan, Citibank, HSBC, and the whole world. US economy falls, the rest will crumble.
India and all those self economies will be the most protected, but not gullible.
Europe may be a little stronger, but not China, another giant place!
Malaysia will see significant impact.

One Big Market

2008 has been a year of events , a global economic crisis was suggested by several important indicators of economic downturn worldwide.

These included high oil prices, which led to both high food prices (due to a dependence of food production on petroleum, as well as using food as an alternative to petroleum) and global inflation; a substantial credit crisis leading to the bankruptcy of large and well established investment banks as well as commercial banks in various nations around the world; increased unemployment; and the possibility of a global recession.

Lehman Brothers was wiped out and AIG and ML got near about crashed.

Sensex Crashed and people lost jobs..

The world looked as if it has become a one big market where almost everyone involved directly or indirectly. Strangely that's the truth of the day.

15 Pointer in Indian History

1947: Independence and Partition
Muslim refugees crowd onto a train near New Delhi during the bloody Partition of Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. Some 15 million people are displaced and an estimated 500,000 killed in the savage violence sparked by Britain's division of its former colony.

1952: Towards Socialism
The Congress Party, headed by India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, triumphs in the young nation's first general election. Nehru establishes a five-year plan for agricultural reform, committing India to a socialist path to development.

1962: India vs. China
Reinforcements head to the front after China steamrolls India's unprepared defenses, seizing a chunk of Kashmir that it holds to this day. The defeat is a dark moment in India's young history and a political blow from which Nehru never recovers. Battling ill health, he dies two years later.

1965: The Second Kashmir War
Housewives and students take target practice in Dhaka, East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), responding to a government call to arms during India and Pakistan's second major conflict over the disputed Kashmir region. The Second Kashmir War ends indecisively with a U.N.-mandated ceasefire.

1971: Independence for Bangladesh
Indian troops are hailed as liberators as they enter Dhaka, East Pakistan, during India and Pakistan's third major conflict. The war ends with a decisive Indian victory and statehood for East Pakistan, which becomes known as Bangladesh.

1975: The Emergency
Beset by growing political disorder, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter, declares emergency rule. Thousands are detained during India's flirtation with authoritarianism, but the experiment is short-lived: the Emergency is lifted in 1977 and subsequent elections sweep Gandhi and the Congress Party out of power.

1983: A Win for India
India wins the Cricket World Cup for the first and only time in the cricket-obsessed nation's history, beating tournament favorites West Indies in the final.

1984: Gandhi Assassinated
Indira Gandhi, returned to power in 1980, is killed by her own Sikh bodyguards, leading to anti-Sikh riots in Delhi where thousands die. She is cremated by her son Rajiv (second from left) and daughter-in- law Sonia (in sunglasses) รข€” a Prime Minister and future head of the Congress Party, respectively.

1992: The Destruction of the Babri Masjid
Far-right Hindu activists raze a 16th-century mosque, the Babri Masjid, in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, claiming it had been erected on top of a Hindu temple. The destruction sparks religious riots throughout India.

1998: A New Nuclear Power
With its new Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee (third from left) in attendance, India shocks the world by detonating a nuclear weapon beneath the remote Thar Desert on May 11; two weeks later, Pakistan replies with a weapons test of its own. The prospect of two antagonistic nuclear powers on the subcontinent raises fears of nuclear war, especially after India and Pakistan clash again over Kashmir less than a year later.

2002: Gujurat Burns
After a train carrying Hindu pilgrims is allegedly set on fire by Muslims, a brutal backlash in the western state of Gujarat results in the deaths of nearly a thousand people. The riots, carried live on television nationwide, spark an outcry against the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), whose officials in Gujarat are accused of being complicit in the violence.

2003: The World's Back Office
India's fourth-quarter GDP growth hits double-digits, thanks to bumper crops and growth in IT and outsourcing. The 10.4% rate is the fastest among emerging nations.

2004: New Faces and Old
Under Sonia Gandhi, the Italian-born widow of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, a resurgent Congress Party sweeps the ruling BJP out of power. Manmohan Singh, a former Finance Minister who spearheaded India's economic reforms, is appointed Prime Minister.

2007: The Sky's the Limit
In early July, the Bombay Stock Exchange Sensex Index eclipses the 15,000 mark for the first time. The milestone means India's markets have soared fivefold in five years.

2008: Nuclear Deal with US
In the month of Oct 2008 PM Manmohan Singh signed the very Special Nuclear Deal with US and other countries also followed. A significant deal for India.

Serial blasts rock Delhi

Serial blasts rock Delhi

An Ambulance carrying wounded people drives away following a blast at connaught place in central New Delhi. (AFP Photo)
People carry an injured woman after a bomb explosion in New Delhi. (AP Photo)

Bomb explosion rock Barakhambha road in New Delhi. (AP Photo)

A security official inspects a blast site in New Delhi. (AFP Photo)
A man lies on the road, after a bomb explosion in New Delhi. (AP Photo)
Five explosions rocked three crowded markets in Delhi on Saturday evening, leaving at least 18 people dead.
The blasts at Ghaffar market in Karol Bagh, Connaught Place and Greater Kailash (M-block) took place in a quick succession, police said.
The first blast took place at Ghaffar market in which at least 20 people were injured. They were rushed to nearby RML Hospital.
Immediately after that, two explosions took place in Connaught Place in which at least 10 people were injured.
Another explosion rocked M-Block market in Greater Kailash-I.
The impact of the blasts in Karol Bagh could be gauged by the fact that an auto was thrown up and got caught in the electrical wires.
Senior Police officials including Joint Commissioner of Police Karnail Singh rushed to the spot in the central district and were assessing the situation.
SIMI has claimed responsibility for the blasts and has termed them as 'Operation Bad'.
Earlier, in an email to media organisations, Indian Mujahideen, the terror outfit that had claimed responsibility for the July 26 Ahmedabad blasts, said it had carried out the serial blasts in Delhi. It threatened that there would be nine blasts in all.
Sarojini Nagar market, scene of the pre-Diwali eve blasts in 2005, in which more than 60 people were killed, has been evacuated.

What is happening..? Why does the Terrorist gain from killing Innocent people. This is real BAD (Bangalore,Ahmadabad,Delhi).

Working LHC produces first images


Protons have made their first complete lap of the world’s most powerful accelerator to cheers and high fives from assembled physicists.

At 1025 (local time) scientists sent a single beam of protons in a clockwise direction around the full 27 kilometres of the Large Hadron Collider at the CERN laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland.

The journey began at 0930 when LHC project leader Lyn Evans and his team launched protons into the ring. Progress was made in short steps of a few kilometres, so that physicists could learn how to steer the beam, which is travelling at 99.9998% the speed of light.

Steering particles

The LHC's tunnel is filled with absorbing devices call collimators, which block the beam every few kilometres. Evans and his team removed the collimators one by one when they were sure that they could steer the protons precisely.

The machine worked better than anyone expected. It took only 55 minutes for physicists to steer beams around the full 27km, and the LHC worked on its first go, far better than anyone dared to hope.

Earlier Evans said that he did not know how long it would take his team to circulate the beam.

"It took us 12 hours to circulate a beam around the Large Electron Positron Collider," says Evans. The LEP Collider was the LHC's predecessor that was shut down in 2000.

Giant freezer

Physicists working on two of the giant experiments – CMS and ATLAS – have seen sprays of particles in their detectors as protons smashing into the collimators next to the detectors (see image, top right).

The day was not without its dramas, however. During the night, part of the cryogenic system that keeps the ring chilled to 1.9 kelvin (just above absolute zero) failed.

The ring has to be cold for the powerful magnets to work. Physicists managed to fix the problem overnight and started the day's tests on schedule.

Evans hopes initially to circulate the beams many times in the clockwise direction. The team will attempt to repeat the test later today, but sending protons around in the opposite direction.

However, it will be several weeks before physicists accelerate two proton beams travelling in opposite directions to their full energy of 7 teraelectronvolts, and smash them head on.

Large Hadron Collider (LHC)


The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest particle accelerator complex, lying in a 17-mile loop under the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva. Its main purpose is to explore the validity and limitations of the Standard Model, the current theoretical picture for particle physics.

The collider is currently undergoing commissioning. Initial particle beam injections were successfully carried out August 8-11, 2008. The first attempt to circulate a beam through the entire LHC is scheduled for September 10, 2008. The first high-energy collisions are planned to take place after October 21, 2008 (so, if any, Oct. 21 will the date to be be concerned, not Sept. 10).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Hadro...
http://public.web.cern.ch/Public/en/LHC/...
http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/
http://www.misunderstooduniverse.com/Fra...


Though I am not a physicist, and do not claim to understand half of what's been written about the LHC, a number of very intelligent scientists say that any strange effects (black holes, antimatter, etc.) should be miniscule and short-lived. That said, scientists have been wrong before, so I'll be hiding under my desk.

October 17 2008

October 17 2008 , A Normal day.. Well think again!


According to many reports and scientific research it may have the sun rise continuously for 36 hrs (1.5 days). During this time the US countries will be dark for 1.5 days. Strange but might be true.
It will convert 3 days into 2 big days. It will happen once in 2400 yrs.

According to Wiki Oct 17 has always been eventful (WIKI)

I feel it is a hoax. I never saw the 27th August Moon Mars (Double Moon).

For it to happen just for the day, the Earth would need to slow down its rate of spin. Not possible for a body as massive as the Earth, without destroying itself as the energy from angular momentum changes so abruptly.

Well whatever will happen I will love to witness as it happens once in 24oo yrs ;we have already seen one happen some 2400 yr back ......

Food Shortage? Try rats, says Indian state government

Found this Article on the net. Couldn't believe it ...


PATNA, India (Reuters) - A state government in eastern Indian is encouraging people to eat rats in an effort to battle soaring food prices and save grain stocks.

Authorities in Bihar, one of India's poorest states, are asking rich and poor alike to switch to eating rats in a bid to reduce the dependence on rice. They even plan to offer rats on restaurant menus.

"Eating of rats will serve twin purposes -- it will save grains from being eaten away by rats and will simultaneously increase our grain stock," Vijay Prakash, an official from the state's welfare department, told Reuters.

Officials say almost 50 percent of India's food grains stocks are eaten away by rodents in fields or warehouses.

Jitan Ram Manjhi, Bihar's caste and tribe welfare minister, said rat meat was a healthy alternative to expensive rice or grains, and should be eaten by one and all.

"We are very serious to implement this project since the food crisis is turning serious day by day," Manjhi, who has eaten rats, told Reuters.

In Bihar, rat meat is already eaten by Mushars, a group of lower caste Hindus, as well as poorer sections of society.

(Writing by Melanie Lee; Editing by Paul Tait)

World Inflation



The Cartoon explains it all....

The world will end in 2012

Several experts from across the globe are predicting that the earth is likely to end by the year 2012. The reason could be a human effect or natural disaster. From Chinese theories to scientific predictions the most likely date is the year 2012.
SCIENTIFIC EXPERTS from around the world are predicting that five years from now, all life on Earth could well come to an end. Some are saying it’ll be humans that would set it off. Others believe that a natural phenomenon will be the cause. And the religious folks are saying it’ll be God himself who would press the stop button. The following are some likely arguments as to why the world would end by the year 2012.

Reason one: Mayan calendar

The first to predict 2012 as the end of the world were the Mayans, a bloodthirsty race that were good at two things -- building highly accurate astrological equipment out of stone and sacrificing virgins.

Thousands of years ago they managed to calculate the length of the lunar moon as 329.53020 days, only 34 seconds out. The Mayan calendar predicts that the earth will end on December 21, 2012. Given that they were pretty close to the mark with the lunar cycle, it’s likely they’ve got the end of the world right as well.

Reason two: Sun storms

Solar experts from around the world monitoring the sun have made a startling discovery. Our sun is in a bit of strife. The energy output of the sun is, like most things in nature, cyclic and it’s supposed to be in the middle of a period of relative stability. However, recent solar storms have been bombarding the earth with lot of radiation energy. It’s been knocking out power grids and destroying satellites. This activity is predicted to get worse and calculations suggest it’ll reach its deadly peak sometime in 2012.

Reason three: The atom smasher

Scientists in Europe have been building the world’s largest particle accelerator. Basically, its a 27 km tunnel designed to smash atoms together to find out what makes the universe tick. However, the mega-gadget has caused serious concern, with some scientists suggesting that it’s properly even a bad idea to turn it on in the first place. They’re predicting all manner of deadly results, including mini black holes. So when this machine is fired up for its first serious experiment in 2012, the world could be crushed into a super-dense blob the size of a basketball.

Reason four: The Bible says it

If having scientists warning us about the end of the world isn’t bad enough, religious folks are getting in on the act as well. Interpretations of the Christian Bible reveal that the date for Armageddon, the final battle between good an evil, has been set for 2012. The I Ching, also known as the Chinese Book of Changes, says the same thing, as do various sections of the Hindu teachings.

Reason five: Super volcano

Yellowstone National Park in United States is famous for its thermal springs and old faithful geyser. The reason for this is simple -- it’s sitting on top of the world’s biggest volcano and geological experts are beginning to get nervous sweats. The Yellowstone volcano has a pattern of erupting every 650,000 years or so, and we’re many years overdue for an explosion that will fill the atmosphere with ash, blocking the sun and plunging the earth into a frozen winter that could last up to 15,000 years. The pressure under the Yellowstone is building steadily, and geologists have set 2012 as a likely date for the big bang.

Reason six: The physicists

This one’s case of bog -- simple maths mathematics. Physicists at Berkely University have been crunching the numbers. They’ve determined that the earth is well overdue for a major catastrophic event. Even worse, they’re claiming that their calculations prove that we’re all going to die, very soon. They are also saying that their prediction comes with a certainty of 99 per cent; and 2012 just happens to be the best guess as to when it occurs.

Reason seven: Earth’s magnetic field

We all know the Earth is surrounded by a magnetic field that shields us from most of the sun’s radiation. What you might not know is that the magnetic poles we call North and South have a nasty habit of swapping places every 750,000 years or so -- and right now we’re about 30,000 years overdue. Scientists have noted that the poles are drifting apart roughly 20-30 kms each year, much faster than ever before, which points to a pole-shift being right around the corner. While the pole shift is under way, the magnetic field is disrupted and will eventually disappear, sometimes for up to 100 years. The result is enough UV outdoors to crisp your skin in seconds, killing everything it touches.



First Individual Gold Medal

The final shot from Abhinav Bindra's rifle may not have been heard outside the packed hall in the Beijing Shooting Range Complex on Monday morning. But its bang was loud enough to lift the spirit of a billion-plus Indians back home. ( Watch )

No individual gold has mattered so much to so many people in the history of Olympics. It was a medal for Abhinav; it was redemption for India. Never again will anyone be able to point a smug, sardonic finger and say: "No Indian is good enough to win an individual Olympic gold."

Hockey's eight gold medals notwithstanding, the last coming 28 years ago, this is the first time that an Indian has won an individual gold since modern Olympics started in 1896. There is no greater joy than listening to the sound of the national anthem on the world's biggest stage.

NASA Brings Total Eclipse of the Sun to the Masses

Photo of 1995 solar eclipse
This photograph shows the total solar eclipse of Oct. 24, 1995, as seen from Dundlod, India.
Credit:
Fred Espenak/NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Larger image

Save the date Aug. 1, 2008, to watch a total eclipse of the sun. NASA Television will share this stunning visual treat with observers around the world in a live streaming webcast, thanks to a partnership with the University of California at Berkeley and the Exploratorium.

On August 1, a total solar eclipse will be visible in parts of Canada, northern Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China. The eclipse will sweep across Earth in a narrow path that begins in Canada’s northern province of Nunavut and ends in northern China’s Silk Road region at sunset.

Watch NASA TV’s streaming live webcast of the event from 6 a.m. (EST) until 11 a.m. (EST). The eclipse coverage is part of the Sun-Earth Day celebration, an annual event that strives to share the many ways in which the sun interacts with Earth and the other planets in our solar system.

An eclipse of the sun occurs when the moon passes directly between Earth and the sun. When the moon’s shadow falls on Earth, people within that shadow see the moon block a portion of the sun’s light.

The moon’s shadow has two parts, an umbra and a penumbra. The umbra is the “inner” part of the moon’s shadow. The penumbra is the moon’s faint “outer” shadow.

During a total solar eclipse, like the one that takes place August 1, the moon appears to cover all of the sun for observers located in the moon’s umbral shadow, also known as the “path of totality.” Those viewing the eclipse from the moon’s penumbral shadow see the moon cover a portion of the sun.

At the moment of totality, when the sun is totally obscured by the moon’s shadow, the sun’s outer atmosphere, called the solar corona, becomes visible. It’s a seldom-seen sight coveted by experienced eclipse watchers and an awe-inspiring vision for first-time viewers. The solar corona extends farther than 620,000 miles from the sun’s visible surface and reaches temperatures up to 2 million degrees.

Be sure to catch the event August 1 on NASA TV’s streaming live webcast and celebrate this magnificent sight, courtesy of our nearest neighbors, the sun and moon.

It will begin at 4:03 pm in Delhi. It will last for about two hours with maximum impact at 5.02 pm. In the rest of the country, the partial eclipse will be visible a few minutes later.

So make sure you see it online or offline.. :)

You can see now ... http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/

Rama Setu: a man-made structure

Rama Setu: a man-made structure

Rama Setu has two dimensions. One is a geological feature, almost like a collapsed canyon below the ocean. The other is a structure clearly evidenced by bore-well studies, built between two layers of sediments. This built structure is the bridge, the setu. Setu in all bharatiya languages means: artificial bund. Hence the name Setubandha. The English word ‘bund’ comes from the bharatiya word ‘bandha’. In Kambaramayana in Tamil there is a separate sarga titled Setubanda padalam. The construction is described vividly in 85 s’lokas by Valmiki and also in sculptures of Prambanan, Indonesia. The earlier sarga also refers to Rama unleashing an arrow which strikes a volcano and tsunami erupts. Hence, the geological fact of mannar volcanics found in the Rama Setu region. There are coral reefs only west, south-west of Rama Setu and NOT in the Bay of Bengal Park Straits side. This demonstrates that the geological feature was a divide between two seas of the Hindumahaasaagar, Indian Ocean.

kalyanaraman

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‘Adam’s Bridge a man-made structure’

July 31, 2007 Reportage: Shobha Warrier | Photographs: Sreeram Selvaraj

http://specials.rediff.com/news/2007/jul/31slid1.jpg

http://specials.rediff.com/news/2007/jul/31slid2.jpg Image: Dr Badrinarayanan feels the Sethu Samudram Project could pose a threat to corals in the region.

http://specials.rediff.com/news/2007/jul/31slid3.jpg Image: An ancient map charts the original route of the Ram Sethu.

http://specials.rediff.com/news/2007/jul/31slid4.jpg Image: The presence of loose sand substantiates the stand that the Ram Sethu is not natural.

http://specials.rediff.com/news/2007/jul/31slid5.jpg Image: Photographs of the Adam’s Bridge taken by NASA.

http://specials.rediff.com/news/2007/jul/31slid6.jpg Image: Dr Badrinarayanan underlines the need for a comprehensive study before progressing ahead with the project.

In our series on Ram Sethu and the Sethu Samudram Canal project, we had earlier interviewed world-renowned tsunami expert Dr Tad S Murty and Dr Kalyanaraman, a researcher on the subject.

This time, we discuss the feasibility of the project with Geologist Dr Badrinarayanan.

Dr Badrinarayanan was former director of the Geological Survey of India. He was also former coordinator of the survey division of the National Institute of Ocean Technology, Ministry of Earth Science, in Chennai.

As a geologist who has done studies on the geological aspects of the area where Sethu Samudram Canal Project is being undertaken, Dr.Badrinarayanan puts forth some interesting findings on the area in an interview to Shobha Warrier.

As a geologist, how do you describe Ram Sethu? Is it a man-made structure or natural formation?

It is not a natural formation; the top portion of it appears to be a man-made structure. To understand what I am saying from the geological point of view, you have to get to know several things.

What is known as Adam’s Bridge is originally a natural grade divide separating the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean to the south. So, the geological aspects are different on either side.

About 18,000 years ago, we had Ice age when the sea level was lower by 130 metres than what it is now. Due to de-glaciation, the sea level rose.

Around 7,300 years back, there was major flooding and the sea level rose to 4 metres more than what it is today. This has been verified by several researchers throughout the world. But the bridge that connects India and Sri Lanka is different; it is not just a sand dune.

Have studies been done on this particular phenomenon?

We (Geological Survey of India) were asked to carry out surveys for locating the Sethu Samudram Canal project by the project authorities in 2004-05.

Any startling revelations?

When we reached near Adam’s Bridge, there was sudden rise in the land level. From about 10-12 metre, it rose one metre to half a metre. So, our vessel could not go and survey the area. In some areas, we did survey using small boats.

The northern side of Adam’s Bridge is the rough Palk Bay, which is prone to periodic cyclonic storms, and the tranquil southern side is the Gulf of Mannar, which is unpolluted and pristine.

Corals grew in the tranquil Gulf of Mannar but not in the turbulent Palk Bay as they grow only in tranquil waters. There are about 21 islands full of corals in the Gulf of Mannar side but not even a single coral on the northern side of Adam’s Bridge.

I would say no proper geological survey was done in the area. Normally before any major engineering project, GSI conducts engineering geological study, geological study, geo tectonic study, seismic study, etc so that we will know whether the project is safe or not.

You mean no such studies were done before this project?

Earlier, GSI had done some drilling but only at the deeper level of about 180-200 metres, but they have not mentioned anything about what was happening at the top portion.

We did a study from NIOT on our own connecting between Rameswaram and the international waters. We did around 10 bore holes along the Adam’s Bridge alignment. Four of the bore holes were along the islands (where sands go on shifting) and six in the water.

Everywhere, after top 6 metres, we found marine sands on top and below that was a mixed assemblage of corals, calcareous sand stones, and boulder like materials. Surprisingly below that up to 4-5 metres, again we found loose sand and after that, hard formations were there.

How do you explain the presence of loose sand?

It shows the structure is not natural. I will explain. Corals are found only on rocks and such hard surfaces. Here, below the corals and boulders, we are getting loose sand, which means it is not natural.

And, on top of the loose sand, which was formed when the sea level was low, our divers found boulders. Boulders normally occur on land and they are a typical riverine character.

Does that mean the boulders were brought there from somewhere?

That is exactly what I am saying. The boulders are not in-situ. They are not a marine local formation. We feel somebody dumped the boulders to use it as a causeway. The boulders on top of the loose sand are transported to that place. As they are found above loose sand, it is quite obvious that they were brought and dumped there by somebody.

How old were the boulders?

I told you earlier that 7,300 years ago, sea level was 4 metres above what it is today. In Rameswaram, Pamban, Tuticorin, etc, we see old corals on the land, and they are not raised by any geological process. It happened because sea level was higher (at the time they were formed). We did dating on them and found that they are 7,300 years old.

From 7,300 to 5,800 years ago, the sea level was high. From 5,800 to 5,400 years ago, the sea level was low. Again, from 5,400 to 4,000, the sea level was higher by 2 metres than what it is today. That is why we are getting two sets of corals at two levels. Dr P K Bannerji has carried out a lot of studies on the raised corals and his papers have appeared in reputed international scientific journals. His arguments are backed by very good scientific data.

So, either between 5,800 to 5,400 years ago, or (some time since) 4,000 years ago, somebody appeared to have brought all the boulders and dumped them there. All the aerial pictures show that Adam’s Bridge is 2 to 3 kilometres wide. On the eastern side, it is high. So, anyone could take advantage of the raised portion and must have dumped these boulders so that he could cross the bridge.

How do the boulders look, and from what were they made?

The shape of the boulders and the type of material clearly indicate that this is a man-made structure. We saw similar rocks on Rameswaram islands and also in Pamban. On either side of the railway bridge, you can see these formations as well as the raised corals. There are indications of quarrying also there.

All these things lead us to believe that 2 to 2.5 metres of packed rubble or material appears to be a modern day causeway. For 30 km, nobody dumps materials like that. Obviously, it was dumped to use it to cross the sea. Moreover, they are compact and light.

It is also quite obvious that the boulders were used to cross over because in all the bore holes we made in the entire stretch of Adam’s Bridge, we saw the same material. It appears like a rock-filled structure.

If it is a geological phenomenon, you will find the oldest formation below and the newer ones on top. I would rather call it an anthropogenic (pertaining to the effect of human beings on the natural world) causeway rather than a bridge.

What else have you learnt from the studies you have conducted along Ram Sethu?

We have found that geologically and geotectonically, this area is very sensitive. Many people are not aware of it. All around the north, there are spots where there is very high temperature below. When we drilled, we encountered hot springs of 60 to 70 degrees Celsius.

Whenever there are earthquakes in Sri Lanka, we get the vibrations in the Indian side also. That means a major fault is running there and it is very sensitive. This area is also known to have earth quakes and they had happened one or two centuries back. To the north and the south, there are indications of old volcanoes.

Because of these hot springs and presence of volcanic zones, do you feel if disturbed, it will affect the equilibrium of the entire area?

What you said is correct. That is why, before venturing into anything, you have to make a comprehensive study. This area has attained some sort of equilibrium over many centuries, and all the drilling and blasting of rocks may activate the fault and may trigger seismic activity or earth quakes.

It may also trigger other events, which may be very detrimental. That is because the hot water from the north, which is blocked by the Adam’s Bridge, will come to the south and will disturb the coral islands. The result will be the destruction of the corals.

Not only that, whenever there is a major tsunami or cyclones in the Bay of Bengal, it is blocked by the so called bridge. Out of 18 depressions in the Bay of Bengal at least six turn into cyclones.

When we interviewed the tsunami expert Dr Tad S Murty, he said if not for the bridge, the entire southern part of Kerala would have been affected badly.

Yes, it would have completely affected the entire south India. We were the people who suggested it. We had done a study, of course not knowing tsunami is coming, and felt the structure will prevent the Tuticorin area, the southern part of Kerala and all the coral islands from getting affected.

The calm tranquil water in the Gulf of Mannar full of coral islands is because it is protected all around. Why do you want to destroy it when nature has blessed you with something so beautiful? This is the first declared marine national park in the country.

Another point I want to make is, some dams trigger earth quakes. There is a possibility it can happen here also. So, it is prudent on part of the government to study all these aspects before taking a major decision.

Do you feel the construction of Sethu Samudram project was initiated in a hurry without conducting proper study?

I think so. This portion is not like any sand dune. This is a very sensitive heat flowing area. I feel the Geological Survey of India should be asked to do a survey.

Was the Geological Survey of India not asked to do a study on this project?

No. Nobody has carried out any survey at all. We only did a survey to locate the alignment. So, but what is needed is a comprehensive study.

What has been formed over centuries by nature cannot be disturbed. In foreign countries, even a hundred-year-old structure is preserved and this looks like it is thousands of years old. No doubt such a canal is essential but not at the cost of nature. We are definitely for progress but our progress should be sustainable.

http://specials.rediff.com/news/2007/jul/31slid1.htm

Bomb Blasts in India

Following is a chronology of some recent major bomb blasts in the country:

  • July 25,2008: Seven Blast in Bangalore in a span of 15 minutes leaving 1 woman dead.
  • May 13, 2008: Eight blasts rock Jaipur in a span of 12 minutes leaving 65 dead and over 150 injured.
  • January 2008: Terrorist attack on Central Reserve Police Force camp in Rampur kills eight.
  • October 2007: 2 killed in a blast inside Ajmer Sharif shrine during Ramadan, in Rajasthan.
  • August 2007: 32 dead, 35 hurt in Hyderabad 'terror' strike.
  • May 2007: A bomb at Mecca mosque in Hyderabad kills 11 people.
  • February 19, 2007: Two bombs explode aboard a train bound from India to Pakistan, burning to death at least 66 passengers, most of them Pakistanis.
  • September 2006: 30 dead and 100 hurt in twin blasts at a mosque in Malegaon, Maharashtra.
  • July 2006: Seven bombs on Mumbai's trains kill over 200 and injure 700 others.
  • March 2006: Twin bombings at a train station and a temple in Varanasi kill 20 people.
  • October 2005: Three bombs placed in busy New Delhi markets a day before Diwali kill 62 people and injure hundreds.

Telectroscope Connects New York & London

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The Telectroscope was built by artist/inventor Paul St. George and connects New York and London via a massive tunnel you can look through and see out the other end.

"The Telectroscope started off as a totally unintentional hoax in the 1870s," explains St George, who is the leading expert on this forgotten backwater of Victorian technology. "It came about through an error. A French editor misread a report about the invention of a thing called the Electroscope - which is all to do with static electricity - and called it a Telectroscope. He also misinterpreted its purpose. "The fascinating thing is that his misunderstanding of what it did - to communicate face to face over a vast distance - really caught fire.

Needless to say there is no such massive tunnel. The end portals were just made to look like they're heading through the earth. In actuality, they're connected via "fiber optic cabling, and an HD camera and projector on either end provide live streaming video. But who really cares, you can still look in one end of this device in New York and see out the other in London. You'll find one end next to the Brooklyn Bridge, and the other across the pond, next to Tower Bridge."

I've got to admit, it's a pretty neat art piece.

So yeah, HAPPY MEMORIAL DAY WEEKEND EVERYONE! Have fun and be safe. But not too safe (the firework war is still a go).

A couple more pictures of the thing after the jump.

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